Donald Trump

Donald Trump Biography, Net Worth, and Family

Donald Trump John , an American politician, media figure, and billionaire, was the 45th president of the United States from 2017 to 2021. He was born on June 14, 1946.

In 1968, Donald Trump earned a bachelor’s degree from the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School. In 1971, he took over as CEO of his father’s real estate company and changed its name to the Trump Organization. Later, he began side businesses, mostly by licensing his name, and he expanded the company’s operations to include constructing and renovating skyscrapers, hotels, casinos, and golf courses. He co-produced and served as presenter of the reality television program The Apprentice from 2004 to 2015. More than 4,000 state and federal court cases involving Trump and his companies have been filed, including six bankruptcies.

Trump’s political stances have been labeled as nationalist, nationalistic, protectionist, and isolated. Despite losing the national popular vote to Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton, he defeated her to win the 2016 U.S. presidential election as the Republican nominee. He became the first American president to have never served in the military or administration. Multiple protests were triggered by his election and policies. It was determined by the 2017–2019 special counsel inquiry that Russia meddled in the 2016 election to support Trump’s victory. Trump, to a degree unheard of in American politics, promoted conspiracies and made numerous false and misleading claims throughout his campaigns and administration. His actions and remarks have frequently been criticized for being misogynistic and having ethnic overtones.

Donald Trump enacted a policy of family separation for migrants who were apprehended, ordered a travel ban on nationals of several nations with a majority of Muslims, and diverted military money for the construction of a wall on the U.S.-Mexico border. In a determined effort to weaken environmental protections, he reversed more than 100 environmental policies and rules. Trump signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which reduced taxes for both people and businesses and repealed the Affordable Care Act’s individual mandate penalty. Three justices of the U.S. Supreme Court and 54 federal appellate judges were nominated by him. Trump started a trade battle with China, withdrew the US from the Iran nuclear deal, the Paris Climate Agreement, and the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement. Donald Trump had three meetings with Kim Jong Un of North Korea, but no movement was made toward denuclearization. In his messaging, he disregarded or contradicted many suggestions from health officials, responded slowly to the COVID-19 pandemic, and propagated false information about the need for testing and unproven treatments.

Donald Trump was defeated by Joe Biden in the 2020 presidential race, but he refused to accept loss, falsely alleging widespread electoral fraud and trying to overturn the outcome by exerting pressure on government officials, launching numerous futile legal challenges, and impeding the presidential transition. Trump encouraged his followers to march to the US Capitol on January 6, 2021, where many of them attacked it, killing several people and halting the electoral vote count.

Only Donald Trump has had two attempts at impeachment against an American president. Following his attempt to persuade Ukraine to look into Biden in 2019, he was ousted by the House of Representatives in December for abuse of power and obstruction of Congress and found not guilty by the Senate in February 2020. Trump was once again suspended by the House in January 2021 for inciting an uprising, but the Senate cleared him in February. Trump has stayed actively involved in the Republican Party ever since he left office. He made his bid for the Republican presidential nomination for the 2024 election official in November 2022. The House January 6 Committee suggested filing criminal charges against Trump for obstruction of justice, conspiracy to defraud the United States, and inciting or aiding an insurrection in December 2022. Trump is regarded by academics and historians as one of the worst leaders in American history.

Trump became the first past US president to be charged with a crime when a Manhattan grand jury indicted him in March 2023 on 34 felony counts of fraud. When he was charged on April 4, he entered a not guilty plea.

Donald Trump Early life

Donald John Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at Jamaica Hospital in the New York City borough of Queens. He was the fourth child of Fred Trump, a real estate tycoon who was born in the Bronx and whose parents were German immigrants, and Mary Anne MacLeod Trump. In the Jamaica Estates neighborhood of Queens, where he was raised alongside his elder siblings Maryanne, Fred Jr., and Elizabeth as well as his younger brother Robert, Trump went to the private Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. He began attending the elite boarding school New York Military Academy when he was 13 years old, and in 1964 he began attending Fordham University. He moved to the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School two years later and earned a B.S. in economics there in May 1968. Trump’s attorney Michael Cohen threatened the College Board, Trump’s high school, and other institutions with legal action in 2015 if they disclosed Trump’s scholastic records.

During the Vietnam War era, Trump was granted four student military deferments while in college. He received a medical clearance for military duty in 1966, and a local draft board declared him qualified to enlist in the military in July 1968. In 1972, he was reclassified 4-F due to bone spurs, forever disqualifying him from duty. In October 1968, he was classified 1-Y, a conditional medical deferment.

Donald Trump Family

Trump wed the Czech beauty Ivana Zelnková in 1977. Donald Jr. (born in 1977), Ivanka (born in 1981), and Eric (born 1984) were their three offspring. . In 1988, Ivana formally became a resident of the US. Following Trump’s affair with actress Marla Maples, the pair got divorced in 1990. 1993 saw the union of Trump and Maples, and 1999 saw their split. Tiffany, their only child, was reared in California by Marla and was born in 1993. Trump wed Slovenian model Melania Knauss in 2005. Their only child is Barron. (born 2006). In 2006, Melania became a resident of the United States.

Donald Trump Religion

In 1959, Donald Trump was confirmed at the First Presbyterian Church in Jamaica, Queens, where he also attended Sunday school. His folks joined the Reformed Church in America’s Marble Collegiate Church in Manhattan in the 1970s. Norman Vincent Peale, the preacher at Marble, served the family until his passing in 1993. He has been compared to a guru by Trump. The church claimed in 2015 that Trump was not a participating member. He nominated televangelist Paula White, his personal pastor, to the White House Office of Public Liaison in 2019. He claimed to be a non-denominational Christian in 2020.

Donald Trump Health practices

Donald Trump has referred to playing golf as his “primary form of exercise,” but he rarely walks the course. Exercise drains the body’s energy “like a battery, with a finite amount of energy,” according to him, making it a waste of energy. Trump’s longtime personal doctor, Harold Bornstein, wrote a letter to his campaign in 2015 asserting that Donald Trump would “be the healthiest person ever elected to the presidency.” Bornstein claimed in 2018 that Trump had dictated the letter’s substance and that three Trump agents had raided the doctor’s office in February 2017 and taken his medical records.

Donald Trump Wealth

Due to his ownership of a portion of his family’s estimated $200 million net worth in 1982 (equivalent to $562 million in 2021), Donald Trump was included on the first Forbes list of affluent individuals. Between 1990 and 1995, he was removed from the roster due to his 1980s losses.[36] He disclosed a net worth of about $10 billion after submitting the required financial disclosure form to the FEC in July 2015. At least $1.4 billion in assets and $265 million in obligations were disclosed in the FEC’s records. In 2015, Forbes pegged his net wealth at $4.5 billion, and in 2018, it was pegged at $3.1 billion. He was one of the wealthiest officeholders in American history according to its 2021 billionaires ranking, with a net worth of $2.4 billion and a position of 1,299 in the globe.

Donald Trump Career

In order to climb the Forbes 400 list of the wealthiest Americans, Donald Trump allegedly called journalist Jonathan Greenberg in 1984 while posing as a Trump Organization official and claiming to own “in excess of ninety percent” of the Trump family business. He did this under the pseudonym “John Barron,” the journalist said in 2018. Trump was incorrectly listed on the Forbes 400 rankings for the years 1982, 1983, and 1984, according to Greenberg, who also claimed that Forbes had greatly overestimated his fortune.

Trump has frequently claimed that his father gave him “a small loan of one million dollars” to start his business, which he had to repay with interest.

By the age of eight, he had amassed a million dollar fortune. He also got at least $413 million (adjusted for inflation) from his father’s business and borrowed at least $60 million from him. He allegedly committed tax evasion with his family in 2018, and the New York State Department of Taxation and Finance launched an investigation. The stock market and the New York real estate markets outperformed his assets. His net worth decreased from $4.5 billion in 2015 to $3.1 billion in 2017, according to a Forbes estimate published in October 2018. His revenue from product licensing also decreased from $23 million to $3 million.

Donald Trump’s tax returns from 1985 to 1994 reveal net losses totaling $1.17 billion, in contrast to his claims of financial stability and business savvy. Nearly every other American taxpayer suffered damages that were greater than these. More than $250 million in losses each year in 1990 and 1991 was more than twice as much as the next-closest losers. His reported losses in 1995 totaled $915.7 million, which is equal to $1.63 billion in 2021.

Donald Trump lost hundreds of millions of dollars over a 20-year period while postponing the taxation of $287 million in debt forgiveness. His earnings primarily came from his participation in The Apprentice and businesses where he was a minority partner, and his losses primarily came from enterprises that were held by the majority. The majority of his income came from tax credits for his losses, which allowed him to escape paying annual income taxes or reduced them to $750. He offset the deficits in his companies’ operations over the past ten years by liquidating assets and taking out loans against them, including a $100 million mortgage on Trump Tower that is due in 2022 and more than $200 million in stocks and bonds. The majority of the $421 million in debt, which he directly guaranteed, is due in 2024.

Donald Trump owed more than $1 billion in debt as of October 2020, which were backed by his assets. He owed $450 million to unidentified debtors and $640 million to banks and trust companies, including Bank of China, Deutsche Bank, and UBS. His possessions are worth more than his liabilities.

Donald Trump Commercial job

Real estate

Beginning in 1968, Donald Trump worked for Trump Management, a real estate firm run by his father Fred that controlled middle-class rental properties in New York City’s outer boroughs. He took over as CEO of the business in 1971 and started using the Trump Organization as an umbrella name.

Manhattan construction

When his family’s first Manhattan project, the renovation of the abandoned Commodore Hotel next to Grand Central Terminal, was launched in 1978, Donald Trump gained widespread notice. The financing was made possible by a $400 million municipal property tax abatement that Fred Trump arranged. He also guaranteed a $70 million bank construction loan alongside Hyatt. In the same year that Trump acquired the rights to build Trump Tower, a mixed-use tower in Midtown Manhattan, the hotel reopened as the Grand Hyatt Hotel. Trump’s main residence until 2019 is now home to the Trump Corporation and Trump’s political action committee.

In 1988, Donald Trump purchased the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan using a $425 million debt from a group of banks (which will be worth $974 million in 2021). A reorganization plan was authorized in 1992 after the hotel filed for bankruptcy protection two years later. In order to pay off his debts, including personally guaranteed loans, Trump sold the Plaza Hotel and the majority of his properties in 1995. This allowed him to escape personal insolvency.

The 71-story skyscraper at 40 Wall Street, subsequently known as the Trump Building, was purchased by Donald Trump in 1996 and renovated. Early in the 1990s, Trump was granted permission to build on a 70-acre (28 ha) parcel of land in the Hudson River community of Lincoln Square. In order to pay off debt from other businesses, Trump sold the majority of his stake in Riverside South to Asian investors in 1994. These investors were able to fund the project’s conclusion.


Donald Trump bought the Mar-a-Lago mansion in Palm Beach, Florida, in 1985. He transformed the estate into a private club in 1995, charging an initiation charge and yearly dues. He kept using a portion of the home as his personal residence. Trump designated Mar-a-Lago as his main residence in 2019.

Las Vegas gambling

In 1984, Donald Trump established Harrah’s at Trump Plaza, a hotel and casino in Atlantic City, New Jersey, with assistance from the Holiday Corporation in terms of funding and management. Trump paid Holiday $70 million in May 1986 to assume full control because it was unprofitable. Donald Trump had previously paid the Hilton Corporation $320 million for a hotel and casino in Atlantic City. It was finished in 1985, and then it became Trump Castle. It was run by his wife Ivana until 1988.

In 1988, Donald Trump purchased the Trump Taj Mahal, a third establishment in Atlantic City. It cost $1.1 billion to build, cost $675 million in bad bonds, and opened in April 1990. In 1991, Trump requested Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. He was made to guarantee future success and forfeit half of his original investment. He sold his failing Trump Shuttle airline, his megayacht, the Trump Princess, which he had leased to his casinos and kept docked, as well as other companies, to pay off his $900 million personal debt.

Donald Trump established Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts (THCR) in 1995, which took control of Gary, Indiana’s Trump Plaza, Trump Castle, and Trump Casino. Trump now owns 10% of THCR, which bought the Taj Mahal in 1996 and declared bankruptcy in 2004, 2009, and 2014. He served as director through 2009.

Golf facilities

In 1999, The Trump Organization started constructing and acquiring golf facilities. It controls fourteen Trump-branded golf courses globally and oversees three more.

During his 1,461 days in office, Donald Trump visited a Trump Organization location 428 times, or almost one out of every three days. He is also thought to have played 261 rounds of golf, or one every 5.6 days.

Getting the Trump name licensed

There are many consumer goods and services that bear the Trump brand, including food products, clothing, adult education programs, and house furnishings. The Washington Post conducted an analysis and found that more than 50 licensing or management agreements featuring Trump’s name have brought in at least $59 million for his businesses. By 2018, just two consumer goods businesses were still using his name under license.

Donald Trump Side businesses

Donald Trump acquired the New Jersey Generals, a United States Football League club, in September 1983. The league folded after the 1985 season, mainly as a result of Trump’s tactics of shifting games to a fall schedule (when they competed with the NFL for viewers) and attempting to force a merger with the NFL by filing an antitrust lawsuit against the company.

At the nearby Atlantic City Convention Hall, which is advertised as taking place at Trump Plaza in Atlantic City, Donald Trump’s businesses have held a number of boxing matches. Donald Trump gave his name to the Tour de Trump cycling stage race in 1989 and 1990 in an effort to establish an American version of European competitions like the Tour de France or the Giro d’Italia. Between 1986 and 1988, Trump bought sizable blocks of shares in numerous publicly traded companies while making noises about wanting to take over the business, then sold his shares for a profit, prompting some observers to speculate that he was using greenmail. According to The New York Times, Donald Trump originally profited greatly from these stock deals but later “lost most, if not all, of those gains after investors stopped taking his takeover talk seriously.”

Having 21 aircraft and the ability to land in New York City, Boston, and Washington, D.C., Donald Trump bought the Eastern Air Lines Shuttle in 1988. He renamed the business Trump Shuttle and managed it until 1992 using $380 million (equivalent to $871 million in 2021) in financing from 22 banks. Trump sold the aircraft to USAir because he was unable to turn a profit with it.

All County Building Supply & Maintenance Corp. was established in 1992 by Donald Trump, his brothers Maryanne, Elizabeth, and Robert, as well as his cousin John W. Walter, who each owned a 20% stake. The business allegedly served as a front for paying suppliers of goods and services for Donald Trump’s rental properties, then billing Trump Management for those goods and services with markups of 20–50% and more. The proprietors divided the profits from the markups. The rising expenses were cited as reasoning in order to get the state to approve raising the rent on Trump’s rent-stabilized apartments. Donald Trump controlled all or a portion of the Miss Universe pageants, including Miss USA and Miss Teen USA, from 1996 to 2015. He moved both pageants to NBC in 2002 due to timing issues with CBS. Donald Trump earned a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2007 for his role as Miss Universe’s producer. In June 2015, NBC and Univision removed the pageants from their transmission schedules.

Donald Trump College

Trump co-founded Trump University in 2004, a business that offered real estate education programs for $1,500 to $35,000. In 2010, the company’s name was changed to Trump Entrepreneur Initiative after New York State officials informed the company that its use of the term “university” violated state law (as it was not an academic institution). The State of New York sued Trump University for $40 million in 2013, claiming that the business had misled customers and deceived them. Additionally, two class actions were brought against Donald Trump and his businesses in federal court. Former employees testified that Trump University had defrauded or lied to its students, and internal documents showed that employees were told to use a hard-sell strategy. Trump agreed to pay a total of $25 million to settle the three lawsuits shortly after he was declared the winner of the 2016 presidential election.

Donald Trump Foundation

In 1988, a private foundation called the Donald J. Trump Foundation was founded. Trump did not contribute any personal money to the charity from 2009 until 2014, so donors other than him provided the majority of the foundation’s funding in its final years. The fund donated to conservative organizations as well as organizations that support health care and sports.

The nonprofit was accused of several alleged legal and ethical transgressions in 2016, including alleged self-dealing and possible tax evasion, according to The Washington Post. Additionally in 2016, the New York State attorney general’s office ruled that the foundation looked to be breaking state laws governing charities and commanded it to stop all fundraising efforts in the state right away. The foundation would be dissolved, according to a December 2016 announcement from Donald Trump’s staff.

The New York attorney general’s office filed a civil lawsuit in June 2018 demanding additional damages and restitution of $2.8 million against the foundation, Trump, and his adult children. The charity stopped operating in December 2018 and distributed all of its assets to other charities. A New York state court issued a $2 million judgment against Donald Trump in November 2019 for misusing the foundation’s funds, some of which were used to support his presidential campaign.

Bankruptcies and legal issues

Over the course of 13 years in the 1970s and 1980s, fixer Roy Cohn acted as Donald Trump’s attorney and adviser. Due to their friendship, Cohn allegedly occasionally waived costs, according to Trump. Cohn aided Trump in countersuing the government in 1973 for $100 million (equal to $610 million in 2021) in response to claims that his properties engaged in racial discrimination. When the countersuit was rejected and the government’s case moved forward, Donald Trump and Cohn lost that case. A deal was made in 1975 that included Trump’s properties providing the New York Urban League with an inventory of all available apartments once a week for two years. Trump hired Stone’s services to negotiate with the government after Cohn introduced him to the political strategist.

According to a running tally by USA Today, as of November 2016, Trump and his companies had been engaged in more than 4,000 state and federal legal actions.

Donald Trump has not declared bankruptcy personally, but between 1991 and 2009, his heavily leveraged hotel and gambling operations in Atlantic City and New York six times sought Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. While the banks restructured debt and decreased Trump’s ownership stake in the buildings, they carried on operating.

More than 70 banks had given Donald Trump $4 billion in the 1980s, but after he filed for bankruptcy protection for several of his businesses in the early 1990s, only Deutsche Bank remained ready to lend to him. The bank made the decision to stop doing business with Trump and his organization after the January 6 assault on the US Capitol.

Donald Trump Media work


Up to 19 works under Donald Trump’s name on business, finance, or political subjects have been written by ghostwriters. The Art of the Deal, his debut work, was a New York Times bestseller in 1987. Tony Schwartz wrote the complete book, despite the fact that Trump was listed as a co-author. The book “expanded Trump’s renown far beyond New York City, making him an emblem of the successful tycoon,” according to The New Yorker. The book is listed as Trump’s second best after the Bible.

Television and movie

From 1985 to 2001, Trump made numerous cameos in movies and television programs.

Since the late 1980s, Donald Trump has occasionally interacted with the professional wrestling organization WWE. He participated in WrestleMania 23 in 2007 and was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame’s celebrity section in 2013.

About 24 times, beginning in the 1990s, Donald Trump appeared as a guest on the widely broadcast Howard Stern Show. From 2004 to 2008, he also hosted Trumped!, a one- to two-minute weekly short-form talk radio show. He provided weekly uncredited guest commentary on Fox & Friends from 2011 to 2015.

The Apprentice and The Celebrity Apprentice were reality programs that Donald Trump co-produced and hosted from 2004 to 2015. Trump acted as the top executive on The Apprentice, where contestants vied for a chance to work for the Trump Organization for a year. Celebrities fought on The Celebrity Apprentice for charity funding. Trump fired contestants during both of the programs’ elimination rounds.

Donald Trump, a member of the Screen Actors Guild since 1989, resigned in February 2021 rather than stand before a committee to be disciplined for inciting the mob attack on the U.S. Capitol on January 6, 2021, and for his “reckless campaign of misinformation aimed at discrediting and ultimately threatening the safety of journalists.” The union forever prohibited him from re-admission two days later.


Donald Trump set up a brand-new business in February 2021. For the purpose of offering “social networking services” to “customers in the United States,” Trump Media & Technology Group (TMTG) was established. Trump declared in October 2021 that TMTG and Digital World Acquisition, a company that specializes in acquisitions, would merge. (SPAC). China-based financier ARC Group, who allegedly assisted in organizing the proposed merger, is one of the main backers of the SPAC. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission is looking into the deal. A social media network similar to Twitter called Truth Social was introduced by TMTG in February 2022.

Donald Trump Electoral life

Donald Trump has frequently switched between political parties. He signed up for the Republican Party in 1987, the Independence Party, the Reform Party’s New York state branch, in 1999, the Democratic Party in 2001, the Republican Party in 2009, the unaffiliated party in 2011, and the Republican Party in 2012.

Trump published full-page ads in three major newspapers in 1987 outlining his opinions on foreign affairs and how to close the federal budget imbalance. He disqualified himself from running for the presidency but not for local government. He approached Lee Atwater in 1988 and requested to be taken into account as George H. W. Bush’s running mate. The proposal was “strange and unbelievable,” according to Bush.

Electoral elections (2000–2016)

Donald Trump entered the 2000 California and Michigan primaries for the candidacy of the Reform Party to run for president of the United States, but he dropped out in February 2000. Trump received 7% of the vote in a July 1999 poll that pitted him against probable Democratic nominee Al Gore and likely Republican nominee George W. Bush.

Donald Trump made his first speaking appearance at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in February 2011 and delivered speeches in early primary states while speculating about competing against President Barack Obama in the 2012 election. He declared he would not compete in May 2011 and supported Mitt Romney in February 2012. Trump’s aspirations for the presidency were not usually taken seriously at the time.

Presidential election of 2016

Donald Trump received an unprecedented quantity of free media coverage thanks to his fame and provocative remarks, which helped him advance in the Republican primary. His ghostwriter Tony Schwartz’s term, “truthful hyperbole,” which he adopted to characterize his public speaking approach. He frequently made ambiguous, suggestive comments during his campaign, and a record amount of them were untrue. Never in contemporary presidential politics has a prominent candidate made false claims as frequently as Trump has, according to the Los Angeles Times. Trump frequently accused the media of prejudice and declared that he detested political correctness.

In June 2015, Donald Trump made his campaign official. Political analysts initially did not consider his campaign seriously, but he quickly ascended to the top of polls. In March 2016, he took the lead, and in May, he was named the presumed Republican candidate.

Throughout the campaign, Hillary Clinton outperformed Donald Trump in the national survey averages, but by early July, her advantage had shrunk. Mike Pence, the governor of Indiana, was chosen by Donald Trump as his vice presidential running partner in the middle of July, and the two were formally nominated at the 2016 Republican National Convention. In three presidential discussions held in September and October 2016, Trump and Clinton squared off. Trump twice ducked the question of whether he would recognize the election results.

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Donald Trump Political views and rhetoric used in campaigns

Right-wing nationalist policies and language characterized Donald Trump’s politics. His political stances were “a total random assortment of whatever plays publicly,” according to a health care policy expert at the American Enterprise Institute, according to Politico, which described them as “eclectic, improvisational, and frequently contradictory.” During his campaign, NBC News recorded “141 distinct shifts on 23 major issues.”

Donald Trump’s campaign platform placed a strong emphasis on enforcing immigration laws, renegotiating U.S.-China ties, free trade agreements like NAFTA and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and constructing a new wall along the U.S.-Mexico border. Other campaign stances included pursuing energy independence while opposing climate change regulations like the Clean Power Plan and the Paris Agreement, modernizing and speeding up veteran services, repealing and replacing the Affordable Care Act, doing away with Common Core education standards, spending money on infrastructure, streamlining the tax code while lowering taxes for all income groups, and imposing tariffs on imports from businesses that offshore jobs. He supported increased military spending, strict screening of or bans on immigrants from nations with a majority of Muslims in order to prevent domestic Islamic terrorism, and aggressive military action against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. He also supported a mainly non-interventionist approach to foreign policy. NATO, in his opinion, is “obsolete.”

Donald Trump aided in the mainstreaming of far-right organizations, ideologies, and groups. After being questioned about a David Duke endorsement during a CNN appearance on February 28, 2016, Trump took some time to retract it. Duke expressed his fervent support for Trump and claimed that he and other like-minded individuals chose him because of his pledges to “take our country back.” Trump appointed Steve Bannon, executive chairman of Breitbart News and self-described “platform for the alt-right,” as campaign CEO in August 2016. Due in part to its opposition to multiculturalism and immigration, the alt-right movement came together and backed Trump’s campaign. In a post-election interview, Trump stated that he disavowed the alt-right and did not want to “energize the group.”

Financial information

In accordance with FEC regulations, Donald Trump had assets worth more than $1.4 billion and at least $315 million in debt. Contrary to the custom of every significant candidate since 1976 and his pledges in 2014 and 2015 to do so if he ran for office, Trump did not disclose his tax returns. He claimed that because his tax returns were under audit, his attorneys had instructed him not to make them public. After a protracted legal battle, including two appeals by Trump to the US Supreme Court, to prevent the release of his tax returns and other records to the Manhattan district attorney for a criminal investigation, the high court finally agreed to let the records be given to the prosecutor for grand jury review in February 2021.

Donald Trump’s 1995 state filings were partially leaked to a New York Times writer in October 2016. They reveal that Trump reported a $916 million deficit that year, allowing him to evade taxes for up to 18 years.

Selection of a president

On November 8, 2016, Donald Trump defeated Clinton with 306 electoral votes that had been promised. Official tally after both parties’ defections was 304 and 227, respectively. Trump became the fifth person to be elected president despite losing the popular vote after receiving roughly 2.9 million fewer votes than Clinton. Trump is the only president to have never held a federal position or participated in active duty.

Politically,Donald Trump’s win was unexpected. Polls had consistently shown that Clinton had a national edge that was eroding as well as a lead in the majority of the competitive states. While Clinton’s support had been overstated, Trump’s had been slightly underestimated.

Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, which had been a component of what was regarded as a “blue wall” of Democratic strongholds since the 1990s, were among the 30 states that Trump won. 20 states and the District of Columbia went in Clinton’s favor. With Donald Trump’s win, the Republican Party regained complete control of the government, including the White House and both chambers of Congress.

Major American cities saw demonstrations in the days after Trump’s election triumph. The Women’s Marches, which took place the day after Donald Trump’s inauguration, attracted an estimated 2.6 million participants globally, including 500,000 in Washington, D.C.

Presidency (2017–2021)

Early steps

Donald Trump took office on January 20, 2017. He signed six executive orders during his first week in office, including ones authorizing the construction of the Keystone XL and Dakota Access Pipelines, reinforcing border security, and starting the planning and design phase for a wall along the U.S.-Mexico border. He also withdrew from the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and reinstated the Mexico City policy.

Ivanka Trump, his daughter, and Jared Kushner, his son-in-law, were appointed as his assistant and senior adviser, respectively.

Competing interests

Before taking office, Donald Trump transferred his companies into a trust that was managed by his sons, Donald Jr. and Eric, as well as a business partner.

He continued to make money from his businesses and was aware of how the policies of his government affected them. The Trump Organization pursued expansions of its businesses in Dubai, Scotland, and the Dominican Republic despite Trump’s declaration that he would avoid “new foreign deals.”

The Domestic and Foreign Emoluments Clauses of the United States Constitution have never been the subject of a real legal dispute before Donald Trump was accused of breaking them. Plaintiffs claimed that Trump could be swayed by foreign governments due to his financial interests. The U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the cases as moot after Trump’s presidency concluded.

National strategy


The longest economic growth in American history, which started in June 2009 and lasted until February 2020, when the COVID-19 recession started, was at its height when Trump was elected president.

Donald Trump signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 in December of that year. Without the support of any Democrats, the measure was approved by both of the chambers of Congress that are controlled by Republicans. The Affordable Care Act’s individual mandate to obtain health insurance was repealed, and tax rates for businesses and individuals were reduced. Business tax cuts were made permanent, while individual tax cuts were scheduled to expire in 2025. The act, according to the Trump administration, would either boost tax receipts or pay for itself by stimulating economic development. Instead, sales fell 7.6% short of expectations in 2018.

Donald Trump authorized significant increases in government spending and the 2017 tax cut despite making a campaign pledge to pay down the debt in eight years. As a consequence, the federal budget deficit rose by almost 50% in 2019, reaching almost $1 trillion. By the conclusion of Trump’s presidency, the national debt of the United States had grown by 39%, totaling $27.75 trillion; the debt-to-GDP ratio had also reached a post-World War II high. Trump also fell short of his campaign promise to invest $1 trillion on infrastructure.

Trump is the only American president in contemporary times to have a 3 million-fewer workforce when he leaves office.

Climate, climate change, and energy

Donald Trump disagrees with the prevailing science view on climate change. He reversed Obama-era climate change policies and cut the research funding for renewable energy by 40%. The United States became the only country in the world to not ratify the Paris Agreement when Trump declared in June 2017 that the country would be leaving it.

Trump wanted to increase fossil fuel exports and output.Under Trump, natural gas production increased while coal production decreased. More than 100 federal environmental rules were repealed by Trump, including those that limited greenhouse gas emissions, water and air pollution, and the use of hazardous materials. In addition to extending permitted regions for resource extraction and weakening animal protections and environmental standards for government infrastructure projects, he also allowed drilling in the Arctic Refuge. “A very aggressive attempt to rewrite our laws and reinterpret the meaning of environmental protections” has been used to describe Trump’s presidential actions.


Donald Trump signed Executive Order 13771 in January 2017, which instructed government agencies to “identify” two existing regulations for elimination for every new rule but did not mandate elimination. He eliminated a number of government laws governing, among other things, labor, the environment, and public health. Trump approved 14 Congressional Review Act resolutions repealing federal rules, one of which made it simpler for people with serious mental illnesses to purchase firearms. Ninety federal regulations, many of which were “made after requests by the regulated industries,” were postponed, suspended, or overturned during his first six weeks in office. According to research by the Institute for Policy Integrity, 78% of Trump’s plans were rejected by judges or did not succeed in court.

The administrative state, according to its supporters, exists “to safeguard those who would otherwise be vulnerable to better funded and organized interests.”

Medical treatment

Donald Trump pledged to replace and abolish the Affordable Care Act during his campaign. (ACA). Through executive orders 13765 and 13813, he slowed down the Act’s execution while he was in office. Trump stated that he wanted to “let Obamacare fail,” so his administration significantly reduced funding for advertising and other enrollment-promoting measures. Trump made the false assertion that he had preserved the ACA’s pre-existing condition coverage. The Trump administration argued before the Supreme Court in June 2018 along with 18 states headed by Republicans that the ACA was unconstitutional as a result of the repeal of the individual mandate. Up to 23 million Americans’ access to health insurance would have been removed if they had been successful. Trump pledged to safeguard funding for Medicare and other social safety-net programs during the 2016 presidential campaign, but in January 2020, he signaled that he might be open to considering cuts to these programs.

Donald Trump signed legislation in 2018 to increase funding for drug treatments in response to the opioid crisis, but he faced harsh criticism for his lack of a clear plan. A high 50,052 Americans died from opioid overdoses in 2019, up from a slight decline in 2018.

Social problems

In 2016, Trump declared his dedication to selecting “pro-life” justices, promising to nominate judges who would “automatically” reverse Roe v. Wade. The legality of same-sex unions nationally, he added, was a “settled” issue. In March 2017, his administration repealed significant portions of the Obama administration’s workplace safeguards against discrimination against LGBT people.

Donald Trump claimed he is against gun regulation in general, despite the fact that his opinions have changed over time. He promised to introduce legislation to reduce gun violence after several mass shootings occurred during his tenure, but this was dropped in November 2019. His government adopted a pro-cannabis stance, rescinding Obama-era regulations that offered protections for states that legalized the drug.

Donald Trump has consistently supported the death penalty. After a 17-year moratorium, the federal government executed 13 inmates during his tenure, more than it had in the previous 56 years put together. Trump looked to retract his support for torture techniques used during interrogations, such as waterboarding, in 2016, after James Mattis voiced his opposition.

Commutations and pardons

The majority of Donald Trump’s pardons and commutations went to individuals with close ties to him personally or politically. During his administration, Trump avoided following the normal Department of Justice processes for contemplating pardons and frequently entertained requests from friends or famous people.

Former Arizona sheriff Joe Arpaio, former Navy sailor Kristian Saucier, who was found guilty of taking secret photos inside a submarine, and right-wing commentator Dinesh D’Souza were among those who received pardons between 2017 and 2019. Kim Kardashian, a well-known celebrity, asked Trump to commute Alice Marie Johnson’s life term after she was found guilty of drug trafficking. Three American military members who were found guilty or accused of committing war crimes in Afghanistan or Iraq had their sentences commuted or pardoned by Trump.

Trump pardoned four Blackwater private security contractors, white-collar criminals Michael Milken and Bernard Kerik, and daughter Ivanka’s father-in-law Charles Kushner in November and December 2020. These individuals were convicted of killing Iraqi citizens in the 2007 Nisour Square Massacre. Additionally, he commuted Stone’s 40-month sentence for obstruction, witness tampering, and lying to Congress in July and released Michael Flynn, George Papadopoulos, Alex van der Zwaan, Paul Manafort, and Alex van der Zwaan from their convictions as a result of investigations into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential elections.

Donald Trump pardoned and commuted the sentences of 143 people on his final full day in office, among them Steve Bannon, Elliott Broidy, a Trump supporter, and three former Republican lawmakers. Former Detroit mayor Kwame Kilpatrick, a Democrat, and sports gambler Billy Walters were among those whose sentences were commuted. Walters had given former Trump lawyer John M. Dowd tens of thousands of dollars to represent him before Trump.

Protesters removal from Lafayette Square

Federal law enforcement officers removed a largely peaceful gathering of demonstrators from Lafayette Square, outside the White House, on June 1, 2020, using batons, rubber bullets, pepper spray projectiles, stun grenades, and smoke. Trump later made his way to St. John’s Episcopal Church, where protesters had previously set a small fire. There, he posed for pictures while holding a Bible, and later, top administration officials joined him. The church was “badly hurt,” according to Donald Trump, who claimed that the protestors were expelled because “they tried to burn down the church on May 31st and almost succeeded.”

Religious authorities denounced how protesters were treated as well as the picture op itself. Donald Trump’s plan to use the American military against demonstrators against police brutality was opposed by a number of retired military commanders and defense officials. General Mark A. Milley, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, subsequently expressed regret for walking with Trump and “creat(ing) the perception of the military involved in domestic politics.”


During the campaign, there was a divisive and contentious debate about Donald Trump’s suggested immigration policies. He pledged that Mexico would pay for a wall to be built along the border between the United States and Mexico in order to stop unlawful immigration. He promised to deport the vast majority of undocumented immigrants living in the country and criticized birthright citizenship for encouraging the birth of “anchor babies.” While president, he frequently referred to undocumented immigrants as a “invasion” and associated them with the criminal gang MS-13, despite the fact that data on the subject indicate that they commit less crimes than native-born Americans.

Trump made an effort to significantly increase immigration enforcement, including by enacting harsher immigration enforcement measures against Central American asylum applicants than any other president of the United States in recent memory.

To prevent the majority of Central American migrants from applying for asylum in the United States starting in 2018, Donald Trump stationed nearly 6,000 soldiers at the border with Mexico. Beginning in 2020, he used the public charge rule to prevent immigrants receiving government benefits from applying for green cards to become permanent residents. The number of immigrants accepted into the United States has dropped to all-time lows under Trump. The annual cap was 110,000 when Trump assumed office; he set limits of 18,000 for the 2020 fiscal year and 15,000 for the 2021 fiscal year. The Donald Trump administration’s additional limitations significantly slowed down the processing of refugee applications, which led to accepting fewer refugees than the permitted number.

Restriction on travel

After the 2015 San Bernardino shooting, Trump suggested imposing an entry prohibition on Muslims until more rigorous screening procedures could be put in place. Later, he changed the definition of the proposed ban to include nations with a “proven history of terrorism.”

On January 27, 2017, Donald Trump issued Executive Order 13769, suspending refugee admittance for 120 days and prohibiting entry for 90 days for nationals of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen due to security reasons. The order went into force right away and without notice, which left airports in a state of confusion and chaos. The following day, airport protests against the prohibition got underway. In response to legal challenges to the order, preliminary injunctions were issued worldwide. A revised ruling issued on March 6 that granted other exemptions and excluded Iraq was once more rejected by federal judges in three states. The Supreme Court ruled in a case from June 2017 that visitors without a “credible claim of a bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the United States” could be subject to the prohibition.

On September 24, 2017, the temporary order was superseded by Presidential Proclamation 9645, which imposed restrictions on travel from all of the original target nations, with the exception of Iraq and Sudan, and further outlawed North Korean and Chadian citizens as well as certain Venezuelan government officials. The Supreme Court permitted the September version of the restrictions to take effect in full on December 4, 2017, after lower courts partly blocked them. In a decision issued in June 2019, the Court eventually upheld the travel ban.

Border division of families

More than 5,400 migrant children were separated from their parents at the U.S.-Mexico border while trying to enter the country under the Donald Trump administration, a sharp rise in the number of family separations at the border since the summer of 2017. The Trump administration declared a “zero tolerance” policy in April 2018 under which any adult suspected of entering the country illegally would face criminal charges. Family divisions occurred as a result of the detention of the adult migrants for criminal prosecution while their minor children were separated as unaccompanied alien minors. The strategy was described as a means to stop illegal immigration by administration officials.

Family separation policies were unprecedented in previous regimes and infuriated the public. Despite the separations being his administration’s policy, Donald Trump falsely claimed that his administration was simply upholding the law and blamed Democrats.

Donald Trump signed an executive order on June 20, 2018, requiring that immigrant families be detained together, unless the government determined that doing so would endanger the child, despite his initial argument that such an order could not stop the separations. On June 26, 2018, a federal judge found that the Trump administration had neither an effective system in place to track the separated children nor any effective measures for family communication and reunification. The judge ruled that the families be reunited and that family separations cease, with the exception of cases where the parent(s) are found to be unfit to care for the child or if there is parental consent. The Trump administration continued to conduct family separations despite the federal court’s injunction, separating more than a thousand migrant children.

Shutdown of government and Trump’s wall

Building a 1,600-kilometer (1,025-mile) border wall with Mexico was one of Trump’s key campaign pledges, and he demanded that Mexico pay for it. By the conclusion of his administration, the United States had constructed “40 miles [64 km] of new primary wall and 33 miles [53 km] of secondary wall” where there had previously been none, as well as 365 miles (587 km) of primary or secondary border fencing to replace deteriorated or outdated barriers.

The federal government partly shut down for 35 days, from December 2018 to January 2019, the longest government shutdown in American history, as a result of Donald Trump’s refusal to extend funding for the government unless Congress provided $5.6 billion for the border wall. Approximately 800,000 government workers were placed on furlough or did unpaid labor. By passing a temporary funding measure that included no money for the wall but delayed payments to federal employees, Trump and Congress put an end to the shutdown. The Congressional Budget Office estimates that the closure caused the economy to suffer a permanent loss of $3 billion. Trump’s approval numbers declined as a result of the shutdown being blamed by about half of those surveyed.

Congress passed and Donald Trump signed a funding measure that included $1.375 billion for 55 miles (89 km) of bollard border fencing to avert an impending shutdown in February 2019. Additionally, Trump proclaimed a national emergency pertaining to the southern border of the United States with the intention of using the $6.1 billion that Congress had allocated for other uses in a different way. A joint resolution to revoke the proclamation was vetoed by Trump, and the Senate decided not to override his decision. Legal challenges to the diverting of $3.6 billion initially intended for military construction and $2.5 billion originally intended for the Department of Defense’s drug interdiction efforts

Foreign affairs

Trump identified as a “nationalist” and advocated a “America First” foreign policy. He advocated viewpoints that were isolationist, non-interventionist, and protective. His backing for populist, neo-nationalist, and authoritarian governments was a defining feature of his foreign policy. Unpredictability and uncertainty, a lack of a consistent foreign policy, and tense and occasionally hostile relationships with the United States’ European partners were hallmarks of foreign policy under Trump.

Trump questioned the necessity of NATO, disparaged the United States’ NATO partners, and privately suggested numerous times that the country should leave the alliance.


Donald Trump, who adopted these beliefs in the 1980s, is skeptical of trade liberalization. In the 2015 Republican primary campaign, he harshly criticized NAFTA. He pulled the United States out of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) talks, put tariffs on imports of steel and aluminum, and started a trade war with China by significantly raising tariffs on 818 categories of $50 billion worth of Chinese imports. Despite what Trump claimed, American businesses that import products from China are responsible for paying the import tariffs, not China. The trade deficit in July 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, “was the largest monthly deficit since July 2008,” despite his campaign promises to substantially reduce the U.S.’s large trade deficits. The United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), which replaced NAFTA, went into force in July 2020 after a 2017–2018 renegotiation.


After Russia’s 2014 annexation of Crimea, the Trump administration “water[ed] down the toughest penalties the U.S. had imposed on Russian entities.” Trump supported a possible return of Russia to the G7 and withdrew the United States from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty in response to alleged Russian non-compliance.

Donald Trump frequently lauded Vladimir Putin and hardly ever criticized him, but he disagreed with some of the Russian government’s policies. Trump came under fire from both sides of the political aisle after his meeting with Putin at the Helsinki Summit in July 2018 for relying on his denial of Russian involvement in the 2016 presidential election rather than the conclusions of American intelligence agencies. Trump and Putin did not discuss the alleged Russian rewards allegedly given to Taliban fighters for attacking American troops in Afghanistan. Trump claimed he had doubts about the intelligence and that he had not been informed on it.


Trump frequently charged China with unfairly taking advantage of the United States both before and during his administration. As president, Trump imposed significant increases in visa requirements on Chinese students and scholars, started a trade war with China that was widely regarded as a failure, sanctioned Huawei for alleged connections to Iran, and labeled China a currency manipulator. Trump’s verbal criticism of China was contrasted with praise for the head of the Chinese Communist Party, Xi Jinping, which was ascribed to their discussions about the trade war. He originally praised China for its response to the COVID-19 pandemic before starting a campaign of criticism in March 2020.

Trump claimed that he held back from retaliating against China for its ethnic minority rights violations in the northwest Xinjiang region out of concern for how it might affect trade talks. Senior Chinese officials were subject to sanctions and visa limitations in July 2020 by the Trump administration as a result of the country’s expanded mass detention facilities holding more than a million members of the Uyghur Muslim ethnic minority.

North Korea

Donald Trump’s rhetoric increased in 2017, as North Korea’s nuclear capabilities came to be seen as a real threat. He warned that any aggression would be met with “fire and fury like the world has never seen.” In 2017, President Trump called North Korean leader Kim Jong-un names and said he wanted the country to “completely denuclearize.”

Following this tense time, Trump and Kim traded at least 27 letters, in which they spoke of their warm friendship. In Singapore in 2018, Hanoi in 2019, and the Korean Demilitarized Zone in 2019, Trump had three meetings with Kim. Trump made history by becoming the first American president to visit or encounter a leader of North Korea while in office. A few American sanctions against North Korea were also removed by Trump.

However, no deal on disarmament was made, and negotiations in October 2019 ended after just one day. North Korea hasn’t conducted a nuclear test since 2017, but it has continued to increase the number of nuclear warheads and ballistic missiles in its arsenal.


Since Trump’s election, the number of American troops in Afghanistan has increased from 8,500 in January 2017 to 14,000 in January 2018, reversing his pre-election stance that further involvement in Afghanistan was unwise. The Taliban and the Donald Trump administration signed a conditional peace agreement in February 2020, which stipulated that foreign troops would leave Afghanistan in 14 months “subject to a Taliban commitment that Afghan soil will not be used by terrorists with the intent to attack the United States or its allies” and that the United States would work to secure the release of 5,000 Taliban prisoners held by the Afghan government. By the conclusion of Trump’s presidency, 5,000 Taliban had been freed, and 2,500 American troops remained in Afghanistan, despite the fact that the Taliban continued to attack Afghan forces and included Al-Qaeda members in its leadership.


The strategies of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu were generally backed by Donald Trump. The international community, including the United Nations General Assembly, the European Union, and the Arab League, denounced the Trump administration’s decision to acknowledge Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and Israeli sovereignty over the Golan Heights.

Arab States

Trump signed a $110 billion weapons deal with Saudi Arabia in 2017 and actively backed the Saudi Arabian-led military campaign against the Houthis in Yemen. The USA only offered sporadic logistical and intelligence support for the intervention in 2018. Trump gave his approval for the deployment of 3,000 more American troops, including fighter squadrons, two Patriot batteries, and a Terminal High Altitude Area Defense system (THAAD), to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the wake of the 2019 attack on Saudi oil facilities, which the US and Saudi Arabia blamed on Iran.

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In response to the Khan Shaykhun and Douma chemical attacks, Donald Trump authorized missile strikes against the Assad government in Syria in April 2017 and April 2018, respectively.

Contrary to Department of Defense assessments, Trump proclaimed “we have won against ISIS” in December 2018 and ordered the withdrawal of all troops from Syria. The following day, Mattis announced his resignation in disapproval, accusing himself of betraying the United States’ crucial Kurdish allies in the battle against ISIS. Trump declared he would not support any extension of the American deployment in Syria a week after making his declaration.

Following a conversation between Trump and Recep Tayyip Erdoan in October 2019, the United States withdrew its soldiers from northern Syria, and Turkey invaded the region, attacking and displacing Kurds who were supported by the United States. Later that month, in an unusual bipartisan vote, the U.S. House of Representatives denounced Trump’s decision to withdraw American forces from Syria for “abandoning U.S. allies, undermining the fight against ISIS, and spurring a humanitarian catastrophe” by a vote of 354 to 60. Trump gave his approval for the Barisha raid, which led to the demise of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the founding head of the Islamic State, in late October 2019.


Following Houthi assaults on Saudi warships and an Iranian missile test on January 29, 2017, the Trump administration imposed sanctions on 12 businesses and 13 people it suspected of being connected to Iran’s missile program. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), a 2015 deal between Iran, the U.S., and five other nations that lifted the majority of Iran’s economic sanctions in exchange for Iran agreeing to limitations on its nuclear program, was terminated by President Trump in May 2018. Since the departure, analysts found that Iran has advanced its nuclear weapons program.

Donald Trump gave the order for an American airstrike in January 2020 that killed Iranian general Qasem Soleimani, who had planned almost all major operations by Iranian forces over the previous 20 years. If Iran retaliated, Trump vowed to attack 52 Iranian locations, some of which were “important to Iran & the Iranian culture”. Both Defense Secretary Mark Esper and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo stated that the United States would not target such sites but rather “follow the laws of armed conflict” and “behave inside the system” in response to the threat to destroy cultural sites. Two American airbases in Iraq were hit by ballistic missile attacks from Iran in retaliation. Iran unintentionally shot down Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752 after it took off from Tehran airport on the same day, which coincided with the escalating hostilities between the United States and Iran.

The Trump administration made an unsuccessful effort in August 2020 to start a mechanism included in the agreement that would have brought back U.N. sanctions against Iran.


There was a lot of staff turnover in the Donald Trump government, especially at the White House. 34 percent of Trump’s initial employees had left, been fired, or been given new jobs by the end of his first year in office. Early in July 2018, 141 staff members had departed the company in the previous year, making up 61 percent of Trump’s senior advisers. More change was experienced in the first 13 months than his four immediate predecessors experienced in the first two years, setting a milestone for recent presidents. National Security Advisor Flynn, who left his position after just 25 days, and Press Secretary Sean Spicer were two notable early exits. Bannon, Hope Hicks, John McEntee, and Keith Schiller were close personal advisers to Trump who either resigned or were compelled to do so. Hicks and McEntee were two who subsequently took on new roles at the White House. Trump called several of his former top officials “incompetent, stupid, or crazy” in front of the public.

Donald Trump had four chiefs of staff in the White House, which caused some to be ignored or ousted. After seven months, former Marine general John F. Kelly took over for Reince Priebus. After a turbulent tenure during which his influence dwindled, Kelly resigned in December 2018, and Trump later disparaged him. As Kelly’s interim chief of staff, Mick Mulvaney took over; Mark Meadows took over in March 2020.

Trump fired James Comey, the FBI head, on May 9, 2017. A few days after taking this action, Trump stated that he was worried about Comey’s roles in the ongoing Trump-Russia investigations and that he had meant to fire Comey earlier. Initially, Trump had attributed this action to Comey’s behavior in the investigation into Hillary Clinton’s emails. In a secret meeting in February, Trump expressed his desire for Comey to end the Flynn probe. Trump requested Comey to “lift the cloud impairing his ability to act” in March and April by openly stating that the FBI was not looking into him.

Within 15 months, two of Trump’s initial 15 cabinet members had left. Tom Price, the secretary of health and human services, was compelled to resign in September 2017 as a result of using military and private charter planes too frequently.

In the midst of numerous inquiries into their behavior, Scott Pruitt, the administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and Ryan Zinke, the secretary of the interior, both announced their resignations in 2018.

Donald Trump put off filling many of the second-tier positions in the executive department, claiming that they are unnecessary. Hundreds of sub-cabinet posts remained vacant as of October 2017. By January 8, 2019, 433 (61%) of the 706 key posts had been filled, and Trump had no nominees for the remaining 264. (37 percent).


Donald Trump named 226 Article III justices, including 54 to the courts of appeals and Neil Gorsuch, Brett Kavanaugh, and Amy Coney Barrett to the Supreme Court.

Donald Trump challenged the constitutional power of the judiciary while serving as president and disparaged courts and judges with whom he disagreed, frequently in personal terms. Observers, including federal judges who are currently in office, have criticized Trump for his attacks on the courts because they are worried about how his statements will affect judicial independence and public confidence in the system.

Pandemic COVID-19

The COVID-19 outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and the SARS-CoV-2 virus quickly expanded across the globe. On January 20, 2020, the first verified case in the United States was announced. Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Alex Azar formally labeled the outbreak a public health emergency on January 31, 2020.

Trump’s public comments on COVID-19 conflicted with those he made privately. Trump said in public that the U.S. outbreak was “very much under control,” less deadly than influenza, and would shortly end in February 2020. At the same time, he admitted the opposite to Bob Woodward in a private discussion. Trump admitted to Woodward in confidence in March 2020 that he had purposefully “played it down” in public to avoid alarm.

Initial reaction

Trump was slow to address the disease’s spread, originally downplaying the danger and disobeying Secretary Azar’s and his administration’s health officials’ repeated calls for action and public health warnings. He largely disregarded the threat throughout January and February, concentrating instead on the outbreak’s economic and political implications. Most international financial markets had drastically shrunk by mid-March as a result of the epidemic that had just begun to spread. Despite HHS and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) officials frequently informing him that vaccine development would take 12 to 18 months, Trump persisted in his claim that a vaccine was less than a year away. Donald Trump lied when he said that “anybody that wants a test can get a test,” despite the fact that test availability is extremely constrained.

The Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act, which provided $8.3 billion in emergency money for government agencies, was signed into law by Trump on March 6. On March 11, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 an epidemic, and on March 12, President Donald Trump issued temporary travel bans for the majority of Europe. The outbreak was described as “horrible” but only “a temporary moment” by him in a national Oval Office speech that same day, and he denied that there was a financial crisis. He proclaimed a national emergency on March 13 to release federal funds.

The $200 million epidemiological research program PREDICT, started in 2009 to provide early warning of pandemics overseas, was discontinued by the Trump administration in September 2019. It was funded by the United States Agency for International Development. The initiative taught researchers in 60 international labs how to recognize and react to viruses that have the potential to cause epidemics. One such lab was the Wuhan facility that made the initial discovery of the COVID-19-causing viral. The program received two 6-month extensions after being revived in April 2020 to aid in the battle against COVID-19 in the US and other nations.

Donald Trump issued an executive order on April 22 that limits some types of immigration to the country. He adopted a strategy of blaming the states for the spreading pandemic in late spring and early summer as infections and death tolls continued to rise rather than admitting that his initial assessments of the pandemic’s course were overly optimistic or that he had failed to exercise presidential leadership.

White House Task Force on Coronavirus

On January 29, 2020, Donald Trump created the White House Coronavirus Task Force. Trump began holding daily task force news conferences in the middle of March. He frequently disagreed with them by endorsing treatments that lack scientific backing. At the briefings, Trump was the primary speaker. He praised his own response to the pandemic, frequently criticized rival Joe Biden for running for president, and attacked the media. On March 16, he publicly acknowledged for the first time that the pandemic was out of control and that there might be months of everyday life disruption as well as a recession. Health professionals objected to his repeated use of the terms “Chinese virus” and “China virus” to characterize COVID-19.

Trump refused to acknowledge any errors in his handling of the outbreak by early April as the pandemic worsened and criticism of his administration’s reaction mounted, instead blaming the media, Democratic state governors, the previous administration, China, and the World Health Organization. (WHO). After a briefing in which Trump proposed the risky idea of injecting a disinfectant to treat COVID-19, the daily coronavirus task force briefings were discontinued in late April. The remark was roundly denounced by medical professionals.

Trump suggested the phase-out of the coronavirus task force and its substitution with a different group focused on reopening the economy in the beginning of May. Trump declared the task group would continue “indefinitely” in the face of criticism. The meetings of the coronavirus task group drastically decreased by the end of May.

Worldwide Organization for Health

Donald Trump criticized the World Health Organization (WHO) and other foreign organizations before the pandemic because, in his opinion, they were abusing American aid. WHO funding would be cut by more than half according to the 2021 federal budget proposal from his government, which was unveiled in February. Trump falsely claimed that the WHO was controlled by China and had helped the Chinese government hide the pandemic’s beginnings in May and April, accusing the organization of “severely mismanaging and covering up the spread of the coronavirus” Then he declared that he was cutting off the organization’s financing. Trump’s actions and criticism of the WHO were interpreted as diversionary tactics meant to draw attention away from his own management of the pandemic. Trump made the official announcement in July 2020 that the US would leave the WHO as of July 2021. Health and government officials roundly denounced the choice as “dangerous,” “short-sighted,” and “senseless.”


Donald Trump frequently stated in June and July that the United States would experience fewer coronavirus cases if it conducted fewer tests, as a high number of reported cases “makes us look bad.” Asymptomatic individuals can still spread the virus, according to the CDC recommendation at the time, so anyone exposed to the virus should be “quickly identified and tested.” The CDC insidiously changed its testing suggestion in August 2020, saying that those who have been exposed to the virus but are not exhibiting symptoms “do not necessarily need a test.” Against the advice of CDC scientists, the Trump administration pressured political appointees at HHS to alter the recommendations. The testing recommendation was changed back to its initial recommendation the day after this political meddling was made public, emphasizing that anyone who has come into contact with an infected person should be tested.

Under pressure to drop pandemic prevention strategies

Donald Trump encouraged the demonstrations on Twitter, despite the fact that the targeted states did not adhere to the Trump administration’s own standards for reopening, as anti-lockdown protests against the measures state governments were taking to fight the pandemic were organized in April 2020 by groups with ties to the Republican Party. He initially backed Georgia Governor Brian Kemp’s plan to reopen a few unnecessary businesses in April 2020, but subsequently criticized it. He pressed harder to lift the restrictions throughout the spring in an effort to repair the economic harm done to the nation.

Despite his own administration’s April 2020 recommendation that people should wear masks in public and the nearly universal agreement among doctors that masks are essential for preventing the spread of the virus, Donald Trump frequently declined to do so at public events. By June, Donald Trump had repeatedly stressed that donning a mask was optional, called them a “double-edged sword,” mocked Biden for doing so, and implied that doing so was a political statement against him personally. National attempts to contain the pandemic were weakened by Trump’s defiance of medical advice.

Trump largely continued to downplay the pandemic despite record COVID-19 cases in the U.S. from mid-June onwards and a growing number of positive test results, including his false claim that 99 percent of COVID-19 cases are “totally harmless” in early July 2020. In spite of an increase in reported cases in July, he also started demanding that all states open their schools to in-person instruction in the fall.

Influence of politics on health organizations

Trump frequently exerted pressure on federal health agencies to adopt policies he supported, such as authorizing experimental therapies or expediting the approval of vaccines. Political officials of the Trump administration at HHS tried to censor CDC public information that contradicted Donald Trump’s assertions that the pandemic was under control. CDC resisted a lot of the changes, but gradually agreed to let HHS employees review papers and make changes before they were published. Without providing any supporting proof, Trump claimed that FDA scientists were part of a “deep state” that was working against him and delaying the approval of drugs and vaccines to harm him politically.

Breakout at the White House

Donald Trump posted that he had tested positive for COVID-19 on October 2, 2020. Numerous members of the employees and guests, including his wife and their son Barron, also contracted the disease.

Trump was admitted to the hospital at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center later that day, allegedly as a result of fever and labored breathing. He received treatment with steroid, investigational antibody and antiviral medications. On October 5, he returned to the White House while still battling the illness. He maintained his denial of the virus both during and after his therapy. It was discovered in 2021 that his condition had been much worse; he had lung infiltrates, a high fever, and perilously low blood oxygen levels, all of which indicated a severe case of the illness.

Repercussions for the 2020 presidential election

By July 2020, the 2020 presidential election had largely turned on Donald Trump’s management of the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic was supposed to be the main election topic, according to Biden. An Ipsos/ABC News poll found that 65% of respondents disapproved of Trump’s response to the pandemic, suggesting that voters blamed him for it and did not trust his rhetoric about the virus. Despite an increase in the number of reported cases and fatalities during the final months of the campaign, Trump frequently asserted that the United States was “rounding the turn” in its handling of the epidemic. For the first time, the United States recorded more than 100,000 cases in a single day just a few days before the election on November 3.


After taking office, investigations into Donald Trump’s actions during the election, transition, and inauguration as well as his presidential actions, private businesses, personal taxes, and charitable foundation were conducted by the Justice Department and Congress. Trump was the subject of 30 investigations, including 12 congressional inquiries, 8 state and municipal inquiries, and 10 federal criminal inquiries.

The House Oversight Committee served subpoenas to Deutsche Bank, Capital One, and Donald Trump’s accounting company, Mazars USA, in April 2019 in order to obtain financial information. To stop the revelations, Trump then filed lawsuits against the banks, Mazars, and committee chair Elijah Cummings. Mazars was ordered to cooperate with the subpoena in May by judge Amit Mehta of the DC District Court, and the banks were also ordered to do so by judge Edgardo Ramos of the Southern District Court of New York. The decisions were appealed by Trump’s legal team. The committee and Donald Trump reached a settlement regarding Mazars in September 2022, and the accounting company started providing documents.

Discreet transfers

American Media, Inc. (AMI), the publisher of the National Enquirer, and a business founded by Cohen paid Stormy Daniels and Playboy model Karen McDougal to remain silent about their alleged relationships with Donald Trump between 2006 and 2007 during the 2016 presidential campaign. In 2018, Cohen admitted to violating campaign finance laws, claiming that he had planned both payments at Donald Trump’s request to sway the outcome of the election. Trump disputed the relationships and insisted he was unaware of Cohen’s payment to Daniels, but in 2017 he gave Cohen a refund. Federal prosecutors claimed that as early as 2014, Trump had participated in talks about non-disclosure payments.

Based on conversations Donald Trump had with Cohen in October 2016, court documents revealed that the FBI thought Trump was directly involved in the payment to Daniels. The Manhattan District Attorney subpoenaed the Trump Organization and AMI for documents pertaining to the payments, as well as Donald Trump and the Trump Organization for eight years’ worth of tax returns, after the federal prosecutors ended their investigation in 2019. New York City prosecutors were “newly optimistic about building a case” against Trump, according to a November 2022 article in The New York Times.

Russian meddling in the election

The CIA, FBI, and NSA, represented by the Director of National Intelligence, collectively declared in January 2017 that they had “high confidence” that the Russian government meddled in the 2016 presidential election to help Donald Trump win. The FBI is looking into the Russian government’s attempts to interfere with the 2016 presidential election, FBI Director James Comey informed Congress in March 2017. Investigating any connections between members of the Trump campaign and the Russian government as well as any possible collaboration between the campaign and Russian efforts are part of this.

The press extensively covered the connections between Trump associates and Russian leaders after they were found. From December 2004 to February 2010, Manafort, one of Trump’s campaign managers, labored to support pro-Russian politician Viktor Yanukovych in his bid to become president of Ukraine. Flynn and Stone, among other Trump allies, had ties to Russian government figures. During the campaign, Russian agents were observed discussing their ability to sway Trump using Manafort and Flynn. Before and after the November election, members of Trump’s campaign team and later his White House staff, especially Flynn, communicated with Russian officials. On December 29, 2016, Flynn spoke with Sergey Kislyak, the Russian ambassador, about the sanctions that had just been put in place. Flynn subsequently resigned amid debate over whether or not he had lied to Pence. In May 2017, Trump informed Sergei Lavrov and Kislyak that he was unconcerned about Russian election meddling.

The conspiracy theory, which was also pushed by Russia to frame Ukraine, that Ukraine interfered in the 2016 election instead of Russia was promoted by Trump and his allies. Trump made several claims following the hacking of the Democratic National Committee: first, that it withheld “its server” from the FBI (there were actually more than 140 servers, of which digital copies were provided to the FBI); second, that CrowdStrike, the company that investigated the servers, was based in Ukraine and Ukrainian-owned; third, that “the server” was hidden in Ukraine. Trump government officials spoke out against the conspiracies.

Hurricane Crossfire and 2017 counterintelligence probes by the FBI

In July 2016, during the election year, the FBI’s Crossfire Hurricane probe into potential ties between Russia and the Trump campaign began. The FBI launched a counterintelligence probe into Trump’s relations with Russia after he fired James Comey as FBI director in May 2017. Crossfire Hurricane was incorporated into the Mueller investigation, but Rod Rosenstein, the deputy attorney general, shut down the other inquiry while giving the bureau the idea that Mueller would continue to look into it.

Inquiry by a special counsel

Robert Mueller, a former director of the FBI, was named special counsel for the Department of Justice (DOJ) in May 2017 by Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein, who gave him the mandate to “examine ‘any links and/or coordination between the Russian government’ and the Trump campaign.” The investigation should be limited to criminal issues “in connection with Russia’s 2016 election interference,” he privately instructed Mueller.] The special counsel also looked into potential obstruction of justice in relation to Trump’s firing of James Comey as FBI director and potential connections between the Trump campaign and Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Qatar, Israel, and China. Trump repeatedly tried to dismiss Mueller and end the investigation, but he relented after his staff raised objections or after changing his mind.

Mueller completed his probe in March 2019 and delivered his report to William Barr. Barr sent a letter to Congress two days later that ostensibly summarized the report’s key findings. Barr was charged with misleading the public by misrepresenting the investigation’s findings, according to Mueller and a federal judge. The Mueller report explicitly states that the probe did not exonerate Donald Trump, despite Trump’s repeated and false claims to the contrary.

In April 2019, a general release of the report with redactions took place. It was discovered that Russia meddled in the 2016 election to help Donald Trump and hurt Clinton. The overwhelming proof “did not establish” that Trump campaign members conspired or coordinated with Russian interference, despite the fact that there were “many links between the Russian government and the Trump campaign.” Widespread Russian interference was revealed in the report, and it was explained how Trump and his team supported it because they thought it would “benefit electorally from information stolen and released through Russian efforts.”

The report also listed numerous instances of possible obstruction of justice by Trump, but it avoided making a “traditional prosecutorial judgment” on whether Donald Trump violated the law, instead recommending that Congress do so. An Office of Legal Counsel opinion stated that a sitting president could not be indicted, and investigators would not accuse him of a crime when he cannot defend himself in court, so they decided they could not “apply an approach that could potentially result in a judgment that the President committed crimes.” The report came to the conclusion that Congress “may apply the obstruction laws” because it has the power to punish a president for wrongdoing. Following the Trump-Ukraine scandal, the House of Representatives opened an impeachment investigation; however, they chose not to seek an article of impeachment pertaining to the Mueller investigation.

In connection with Mueller’s probe and associated cases, a number of Trump associates entered pleas of guilty or were found guilty, including Manafort, who was found guilty on eight felony counts, deputy campaign manager Rick Gates, foreign policy adviser Papadopoulos, and Flynn. Cohen admitted to lying to Congress about Trump’s efforts in 2016 to work out a plan to have a Trump Tower built in Moscow. Trump, who is referred to in the court papers as “Individual-1,” was the subject of the fabricated statements, according to Cohen. For lying to Congress and tampering with witnesses in relation to his efforts to learn more about hacked Democratic emails during the 2016 election, Stone was given a 40-month prison term in February 2020. Stone “was prosecuted for covering up for the president,” the sentencing judge stated.

First impeachment

A whistleblower complained to the Inspector General of the Intelligence Community in August 2019 about a phone call between Donald Trump and Volodymyr Zelenskyy, the president of Ukraine, on July 25. During the call, Trump allegedly pressured Zelenskyy to look into CrowdStrike, Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden, and his son Hunter. The whistleblower also claimed that the White House had attempted to cover up the incident. The whistleblower claimed that the call was a part of a larger effort by the Trump administration and Giuliani, which may have included canceling Pence’s May 2019 trip to Ukraine and withholding financial assistance to Ukraine in July 2019.

On September 24, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi opened an official impeachment investigation. Then, Trump offered contradictory justifications for his choice to withhold military assistance from Ukraine. On September 25, the Trump administration made a memo of the conversation public. It confirmed that after Zelenskyy mentioned buying American anti-tank missiles, Trump urged him to talk to Giuliani and Barr about looking into Biden and his son. The testimony of numerous current and former government officials supported the notion that this was a part of a larger scheme to advance Trump’s personal interests by providing him an edge in the upcoming presidential election. Chargé d’affaires for Ukraine William B. Taylor Jr. stated in front of congressional committees in October that shortly after arriving in Ukraine in June 2019, he discovered that Zelenskyy was being put under pressure by Trump and Giuliani. Taylor and others claim that the intention was to pressure Zelenskyy into publicly committing to look into the firm that hired Hunter Biden and rumors of Ukrainian interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election. He claimed that it was made plain that the administration would not release scheduled military aid for Ukraine and would not extend an invitation to Zelenskyy to the White House until Zelenskyy made such an announcement.

On December 13, the House Judiciary Committee unanimously approved two articles of impeachment, one for misuse of authority and the other for obstruction of Congress, over the objections of both parties. The House of Representatives suspended Donald Trump on both articles in December following discussion.

Senate impeachment hearings

The House impeachment managers made their case for three days during the trial in January 2020. They claimed that Donald Trump’s actions were precisely what the founding fathers had in mind when they established the Constitution’s impeachment procedure, and they provided evidence to support the charges of abuse of power and obstruction of Congress. Trump’s attorneys responded over the course of the following three days, refusing to dispute the facts as stated in the charges but asserting that Trump had not violated any laws or obstructed Congress. They claimed that because Trump was not charged with a crime and because misuse of power is not an impeachable offense, the impeachment was “constitutionally and legally invalid.”

On January 31, a majority of 51 Republicans in the Senate voted against allowing subpoenas for witnesses or papers. The impeachment hearing was a first for the country in that no witnesses testified.

The Republican majority cleared Trump of both allegations, voting 52-48 for misuse of power and 53-47 for obstruction of Congress. Only Republican senator Mitt Romney voted to convict Trump of one charge, misuse of power. Trump dismissed impeachment witnesses, as well as other political appointees and professional officials, after being found not guilty.

Presidential election of 2020

Within a few hours of taking office, Donald Trump defied tradition by filing with the FEC to compete for a second term. Less than a month after taking office, he conducted his first re-election rally. In August 2020, he formally became the Republican nominee.

Trump’s reelection committee reported collecting $67.5 million in his first two years in office and started 2019 with $19.3 million in cash. The Trump campaign and the Republican Party had raised $1.1 billion and spent $800 million by July 2020, giving Biden the financial edge. The campaign had to reduce its advertising budget due to a financial shortage.

In his campaign ads, Donald Trump emphasized crime and warned that a Biden administration would result in cities becoming lawless. Biden’s views were repeatedly misrepresented by Trump, who then turned to racial allusions.

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Presidential election of 2020

Donald Trump started casting doubt on the election in the spring of 2020, asserting without providing any proof that it would be manipulated and that the widely anticipated use of mail-in ballots would result in significant election fraud. Trump first suggested postponing the election in July. When the House of Representatives approved a $25 billion grant for the U.S. Postal Service in August to support the anticipated rise in mail voting, Trump vetoed the funding, claiming he intended to stop any increase in mail voting. He repeatedly declined to state whether, if he lost, he would accept the election results and commit to a peaceful transfer of power.

On November 3, Biden defeated Donald Trump with 81.3 million ballots, or 51.3% of the vote, and 306 electoral votes, as opposed to 232 for Trump.

Voting fraud allegations that are false and an effort to obstruct the transfer of power

Even though the results were still undetermined the following morning, Donald Trump claimed victory at 2 a.m. Days after it was predicted that Biden would win, Donald Trump proclaimed that “this election is far from over” and falsely accused the electorate of voter fraud. Trump and his supporters filed numerous legal challenges against the results, but at least 86 judges in state and federal courts, including federal judges Trump personally nominated, rejected them because they lacked any factual or legal support. State poll officials also denied Trump’s unsupported claims of widespread voter fraud. Trump fired Chris Krebs, the head of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), on November 17 after he refuted his claims of fraud. On December 11, the U.S. Supreme Court turned down the Texas attorney general’s request to have the results of four states that Biden won overturned.

In the weeks after the election, Donald Trump stopped engaging in public events. He originally prevented government representatives from helping Biden transition to the presidency. After three weeks, the General Services Administration’s administrator proclaimed Biden the “apparent winner” of the election, enabling his team to receive transitional resources. Trump asserted that he had advised the GSA to start transition procedures, but he has yet to officially concede.

On December 14, the Electoral College officially recognized Biden’s win. From November to January, Donald Trump made numerous attempts to have the election results overturned. He personally pressed Republican candidates for local and state office, Republican state and federal legislators, the Justice Department, and Vice President Pence to take various actions, such as removing the presidential electors from office or asking Georgia officials to “find” votes and declare a “recalculated” outcome. Georgian prosecutors launched a criminal probe into Trump’s attempts to rig the Georgian election on February 10, 2021.

Due to his early departure from Washington for Florida, Donald Trump missed Biden’s ceremony.

Concern over a potential military operation or coup attempt

Newsweek claimed in December 2020 that the Pentagon was on red alert and that senior officers had discussed what they would do if President Donald Trump chose to impose martial law. Defense officials were quoted by the Pentagon as saying that the military has no influence over the results of elections.

Mark Milley, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and Gina Haspel, the director of the CIA, became worried about the possibility of a coup attempt or military action against China or Iran when Donald Trump placed supporters in positions of authority at the Pentagon following the election in November 2020. Milley instructed Haspel and NSA director Paul Nakasone to carefully watch developments and insisted that he should be consulted before any military orders from Trump, including the use of nuclear weapons.

Capitol assault on January 6

Donald Trump held a rally on January 6, 2021, at the Ellipse in Washington, D.C., calling for the presidential election results to be overturned and urging his supporters to “take back our country” by marching to the Capitol to “show strength” and “fight like hell.” This occurred as congressional certification of the election results was taking place in the US Capitol. At noon, Donald Trump’s address got underway. Participants in the rally had gathered outside the Capitol by 12:30 p.m., and at 1 p.m., his followers broke through police barriers and entered the building. At 1:10 p.m., Trump’s speech came to a close, and many of his supporters followed his advice to march to the Capitol and join the crowd there. The mob broke into the structure around 2:15 p.m., disrupting certification and forcing Congress to leave. Throughout the unrest, Trump posted conflicting messages on Facebook and Twitter. At 6 p.m., he tweeted to the rioters, “Go home with love & in peace,” while also calling them “great patriots” and “very special” and continuing to claim that the election was rigged. In the early hours of the following morning, Congress reconvened and announced that Biden had won the election after the mob had been driven out of the Capitol. Five individuals, including a Capitol Police officer, died and there were numerous injuries.

Donald Trump wrote a tune in March 2023 with rioters who were already in jail to raise money for the prisoners. It entered the Billboard’s Digital Song Sales list at number one after selling 33,000 downloads in its first week.

2nd Impeachment

An article of impeachment accusing Donald Trump of inciting an uprising against the American government was presented to the House on January 11, 2021. Trump became the first U.S. president to be impeached twice on January 13 after the House approved 232–197 to do so. The fastest indictment in history came after a failed bipartisan attempt to deprive Trump of his authority under Section 4 of the 25th Amendment. The most party members to ever vote to remove a president from their own party were ten Republicans who voted in favor of impeachment.

After a five-day Senate trial, Trump was found not guilty on February 13 when the Senate voted 57-43 in favor of conviction, falling ten votes short of the two-thirds majority needed to find someone guilty. Seven Republicans joined every Democrat in favor of conviction, marking the highest level of bipartisan support in a Senate impeachment trial of a sitting president or former president. Despite holding Trump accountable, the majority of Republicans voted to exonerate him because they believed the Senate had no authority over past presidents. (Trump had left office on January 20; the Senate voted 56–44 the trial was constitutional). McConnell was a member of the latter group and claimed that while Trump was “constitutionally not eligible for conviction,” he was “practically and morally responsible for provoking the events of the day.”

Post-Presidency (2021–present)

Donald Trump moved into his Mar-a-Lago club to reside after his term was over. He created an office there to manage his post-presidential duties as allowed by the Former Presidents Act.

The press and Donald Trump’s detractors frequently referred to his false claims about the 2020 race as the “big lie.” Trump and his supporters tried to appropriate the phrase in May 2021 by using it to allude to the election itself. The imposition of new voting restrictions in favor of the Republican Party was justified by the false election story that Trump advanced. Trump persisted in exerting pressure on state lawmakers to annul the results of the 2020 election by rescinding the state’s electoral ballots for Biden as late as July 2022.

On June 6, 2021, Donald Trump delivered an 85-minute address at the annual North Carolina Republican Party convention, resuming his campaign-style rallies. He staged his first public rally since the one on January 6 that came before the Capitol riot on June 26.

Trump, who has been compared to a contemporary party boss, continued to rule his party unlike other past presidents. He persisted in collecting money, raising more than the Republican Party did, hinted at a third run, and benefited from the Mar-a-Lago fundraisers that many Republican candidates attended. He devoted a lot of attention to the decision-makers and the conduct of polls. He backed over 200 candidates in the 2022 midterm elections, the majority of whom agreed with his fabrication that the 2020 presidential election was rigged against him. Donald Trump’s support was valued by candidates in Republican primary elections, with a few exceptions.

Donald Trump set up a brand-new business in February 2021. For the purpose of offering “social networking services” to “customers in the United States,” Trump Media & Technology Group (TMTG) was established. Trump declared in October 2021 that TMTG and Digital World Acquisition, a company that specializes in acquisitions, would merge. (SPAC). China-based financier ARC Group, who allegedly assisted in organizing the proposed merger, is one of the main backers of the SPAC. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission is looking into the deal. A social media network similar to Twitter called Truth Social was introduced by TMTG in February 2022.

Post-presidential inquiries

Investigations into Donald Trump’s business dealings and decisions both before and during the administration are ongoing. Fani Willis, the district attorney for Fulton County in Georgia, stated in February 2021 that there would be a criminal investigation into the calls Donald Trump made to Brad Raffensperger, the secretary of state of Georgia. Together with the Manhattan District Attorney’s Office, the New York State Attorney General’s Office is looking into Trump’s financial dealings. A special grand jury was contemplating indictments by May 2021. Prosecutors in New York accused the Trump Organization of a “15-year’scheme to defraud’ the government” in July 2021. Allen Weisselberg, the company’s top financial officer, was charged with conspiracy to steal, tax fraud, and other offenses.

The New York State Attorney General’s office served a subpoena on Donald Trump in December 2021 requesting that he deliver records pertaining to the company. Donald Trump was found in contempt of court on April 25, 2022, by New York state judge Arthur Engoron for disobeying the order. $10,000 in fines would be assessed daily until he complied. Trump was removed from office in August after more than 400 times of exercising his Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination. The New York Attorney General brought a civil fraud claim against Donald Trump, his three eldest children, and the Trump Organization in September 2022.

FBI’s inquiries

Donald Trump brought materials and documents from the government to Mar-a-Lago when he departed the White House in January 2021. When it became clear that crucial records had not been turned over to NARA at the end of Trump’s presidency in May 2021, the federal organization that preserves government records contacted his office to find them. They removed 15 cartons of White House documents from Mar-a-Lago in January 2022. Later, NARA notified the Department of Justice that some of the recovered papers contained sensitive information. In April 2022, the Justice Department launched an inquiry and called a grand jury. On May 11, the Justice Department served Trump with a demand for more information. On June 3, representatives of the Justice Department went to Mar-a-Lago and picked up some sensitive paperwork from Donald Trump’s attorneys. All of the information marked as classified has been given back to the government, according to a statement that one of the attorneys signed. A second subpoena was issued later that month, asking for security video from Mar-a-Lago, which was delivered.

On August 8, 2022, FBI agents investigated Donald Trump’s home, office, and storage areas at Mar-a-Lago to find records that Trump had allegedly taken with him when he left office in violation of the Presidential Records Act, including some that were allegedly connected to nuclear weapons. The written inventory of the confiscated items and the search warrant, which was approved by a federal magistrate judge after being allowed by U.S. Attorney General Merrick Garland, were made public on August 12. The search warrant’s text suggests that possible violations of the Espionage Act and laws against obstructing the administration of justice are being looked into. Eleven sets of classified papers were taken during the search, four of which were marked as “top secret” and one as “top secret/SCI,” the highest classification.

Federal prosecutor Jack Smith was chosen by Garland on November 18, 2022, to serve as a special counsel and head the federal criminal investigations into Trump’s possession of government property at Mar-a-Lago and his involvement in the events leading up to the January 6, 2021 Capitol assault.

Criminal report made by the House Committee on January 6

Donald Trump was suggested for criminal prosecution on December 19, 2022, by the United States House Select Committee on the January 6 Attack for obstructing an official investigation, conspiring to defraud the United States, and inciting or aiding an insurrection.

Presidential election of 2024

Donald Trump declared his bid for the presidency of the United States in 2024 on November 15, 2022, and he opened a funding account.

Arrest and indictment

A New York grand jury indicted Donald Trump on 34 felony counts of falsifying financial documents in March 2023. Trump turned himself in on April 4. He was then taken into custody, charged, and freed after entering a not-guilty plea to all charges. Donald Trump must submit any motions by August 8 in order to be heard at the next in-person meeting, which the judge set for December 4.

Public figure

Scholarly polls and approval ratings

In Gallup polls conducted since 1938, Donald Trump is the only president to have never had an approval percentage of 50% or higher. The partisan gap in the approval scores was at an all-time high: 88 percent among Republicans, compared to 7 percent among Democrats. The ratings were unusually consistent up until September 2020, fluctuating between a peak of 49 percent and a low of 35 percent. Trump ended his tenure with the lowest approval rating of any president since the advent of modern polling, ranging from 29 to 34 percent, and maintained a record-low average of 41 percent throughout his term.

Donald Trump came in second to Obama in 2017 and 2018, tied with him for first place in 2019 and won the title of most admired man in 2020 in Gallup’s yearly survey asking Americans to identify the man they admire the most. Donald Trump is the first elected president to not be named as the most admired in his first year in office since Gallup began conducting the survey in 1948.

In only 29, the majority of which are non-democracies, according to a Gallup poll that compared the approval scores of U.S. leadership between 2016 and 2017, Donald Trump outperformed Obama in terms of job approval, with support for U.S. leadership declining among allies and G7 nations. Overall approval scores were comparable to those of George W. Bush’s final two years in office. Only 16% of international respondents to a 13-nation Pew Research survey by the middle of 2020 expressed trust in Trump, a lower rating than Vladimir Putin of Russia and Xi Jinping of China had previously received.

Donald Trump received the fourth-lowest overall score in the Presidential Historians Survey 2021 conducted by C-SPAN, which has polled presidential historians on presidential leadership every time an administration has changed since 2000. Donald Trump received the lowest scores in the leadership characteristic categories for moral authority and administrative skills. Since 1982, the Siena College Research Institute (SCRI) has conducted a survey of presidential scholars in the second year of each president’s first tenure. Trump received the SCRI’s third-worst total ranking for the second time. He received the lowest rankings for his background, integrity, intelligence, achievements in foreign policy, and executive appointments. He came in second-to-last place for his ability to compromise and executive ability. With the exception of luck, readiness to take risks, and party leadership, he was near the bottom in every category.

Social media

After Donald Trump joined Twitter in 2009, his social media presence gained attention from all over the globe. He tweeted regularly both during the 2016 presidential campaign and while he was in office, up until the days before Twitter banned him. Over a period of twelve years, Trump published about 57,000 tweets, frequently eluding the media and using Twitter as a direct line of contact with the public. Trump’s tweets, according to a White House press secretary in June 2017, were formal presidential statements. Trump frequently used Twitter to notify the resignation of cabinet members and administration officials.

After receiving criticism for permitting Donald Trump to spread false information for years, Twitter started to add fact-checking disclaimers to some of his tweets in May 2020. In reaction, Trump wrote that he would “strongly regulate, or close them down,” saying that “Social Media Platforms totally silence conservatives voices.” Following the takeover of the US Capitol, Trump was suspended from Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and other services. Trump’s ability to influence events was reduced by the loss of his social media footprint, including his 88.7 million Twitter followers, and a sharp decline in the amount of false information being spread on the platform. Early efforts by Trump to reclaim a social media presence were ineffective. He introduced the social media site Truth Social in February 2022, but only a small portion of his prior audience joined him there.

Elon Musk, the proprietor of Twitter, restored Donald Trump’s account on November 19, 2022. Trump had declared he would continue to use Truth Social.

Interaction with the media

Throughout his tenure, Donald Trump sought media attention and maintained a “love-hate” relationship with the media. Trump benefited from a record amount of unpaid media coverage during the 2016 campaign, which improved his position in the Republican primary. Amy Chozick, a reporter for The New York Times, claimed in 2018 that Trump’s media hegemony captivated the public and produced “must-see TV.”

Donald Trump frequently accused the media of bias both as a candidate and as president, branding it the “fake news media” and “the enemy of the people.” Trump claimed he deliberately denigrated and discredited the media in 2018, according to journalist Lesley Stahl, “so that no one will believe you when you write negative stories about me.”

When he was president, Donald Trump considered suspending the press passes of reporters he thought were unfair. Two White House reporters’ press passes were attempted to be revoked by his administration, but were later reinstated by the judges. In 2019, a member of the international press voiced many of the same worries as those of the American media, voicing worry that a process of normalization by reporters and media leads to an inaccurate portrayal of Donald Trump. About one hundred formal press briefings were conducted by the Trump White House in 2017, but that number fell to fifty in 2018 and two in 2019.

Donald Trump also used the judicial system to threaten journalists. The Donald Trump campaign sued The New York Times, The Washington Post, and CNN in the first few months of 2020 for defamation in articles about Russian electoral meddling. Legal professionals opined that the lawsuits lacked substance and had little chance of success. The cases against CNN and The New York Times were thrown out in March 2021.

False or deceptive claims

Trump frequently made false claims in public speeches and comments both as a candidate and as president, to a degree unheard of in American politics. His fabrications came to define his political persona.

Fact-checkers, such as those at The Washington Post, have compiled a list of Trump’s false and misleading statements, which number 30,573 over the course of his four-year term. The number of false or misleading statements made by Trump grew over time, going from 6 per day in his first year in office to 16 per day in his second, 22 per day in his third, and 39 per day in his final year. He made 10,000 false or deceptive claims when he was 27 months into his tenure, 20,000 false or deceptive claims when he was 14 months in, and 30,000 false or deceptive claims when he was 5 months in.

Some of Trump’s lies were unimportant, such as his assertion that the “biggest inaugural crowd ever” took place. Others, like Trump’s promotion of questionable antimalarial medications as a COVID-19 treatment in a news conference and on Twitter in March 2020, had more extensive repercussions. Worldwide repercussions of the allegations included a shortage of these medications in the US and panic buying in Africa and South Asia. Other false information was used by Trump for domestic political ends, such as attributing an increase in crime in England and Wales to the “spread of radical Islamic terror.” Trump refuses to apologise for his lies out of conviction.

Despite the regularity of Trump’s lies, the media hardly ever called them out as such. The Washington Post did this for the first time in August 2018, when it claimed that some of Trump’s claims were false, particularly those relating to secret money given to Stormy Daniels and Playboy model Karen McDougal.

Trump was a major source of false information about mail-in ballots and the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. In contrast to his misinformation about the pandemic, his attacks on mail-in ballots and other election procedures worked to erode public confidence in the validity of the 2020 presidential election.

Trump lies differ from those of previous presidents because they are “egregious false statements that are demonstrably contrary to well-known facts,” according to James Pfiffner, professor of policy and government at George Mason University. These lies are the “most important” of all Trump lies. Since beliefs or policy will be arbitrarily decided by “political power,” people will be unable to assess their government, which weakens liberal democracy, according to Pfiffner.

Conspiracy theory promotion

Donald Trump has promoted a number of conspiracies before and during his presidency, including the Clinton body count conspiracy theory, the Obama birther theory, QAnon, the global warming hoax theory, the Trump Tower wiretapping allegations, the John F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theory involving Rafael Cruz, the connection between talk show host Joe Scarborough and the death of a staff member, the allegation of foul play in the death of Justice Antonin Scalia, and the allegation of Ukrainian At least twice, Trump went on the record as saying he shared the conspiracy theory in issue.

Donald Trump has pushed a number of conspiracies to explain away his loss, including deceased people voting, voting machines altering or erasing Trump votes, fraudulent mail-in ballots, tossing out Trump votes, and “finding” suitcases packed with Biden votes.

Racial attitudes

Numerous Trump remarks and deeds have been deemed bigoted. In a nationwide survey, roughly half of participants claimed that Trump is racist; a larger percentage thought that he has given racists more confidence. Numerous studies and polls revealed that racist attitudes fueled Donald Trump’s political rise and were more significant than economic variables in influencing Trump supporters’ allegiance. Support for Trump is strongly correlated with racist and Islamophobic views.

He reached a settlement with the Department of Justice in 1975 regarding a 1973 lawsuit alleging housing discrimination against black tenants. In addition, he has been charged with racism for continuing to maintain that a group of black and Latino teens were responsible for the rape of a white woman in the Central Park jogger case in 1989, even after DNA evidence cleared them in 2002. 2019 saw him still in this role.

He rose to prominence as the chief defender of the racist “birther” conspiracy theory, which claimed that Barack Obama, the country’s first black president, was not actually born in America, in 2011, when he was allegedly considering a presidential bid. He asserted in April that he had persuaded the White House to release the “long-form” birth certificate, which he believed to be false, and subsequently claimed that this had made him “very popular”. Under duress, he finally admitted that Obama was born in the United States in September 2016. He allegedly privately voiced birther opinions in 2017.

Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign featured “explicitly racist appeals to whites,” according to a Political Science Quarterly study. He received a lot of backlash for saying in his campaign address that immigrants from Mexico were “bringing drugs, they’re bringing crime, they’re rapists.” Racist criticism was also leveled at his later remarks about a Mexican-American judge ruling over a civil case involving Trump University.

Trump’s remarks on the far-right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia in 2017 were heavily criticized for implying a moral equivalence between the white supremacist demonstrators and the counter-protesters. He denounced “this egregious display of hatred, bigotry and violence on many sides” and said there were “very fine people on both sides.”

El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, and countries in Africa were allegedly referred to as “shithole countries” by Trump during a meeting in the Oval Office in January 2018 to discuss immigration legislation. His comments were criticized as being bigoted.

Trump wrote in July 2019 that four Democratic congresswomen, all of whom are minorities and three of whom were born in the United States, should “go back” to their “home countries.” Two days later, his “racist comments” were condemned by the House of Representatives in a 240-187 vote that mostly followed party lines. His comments received praise from white nationalist newspapers and social media platforms, which persisted over the next few days. Throughout his 2020 campaign, Trump made identical statements again and again.

Sexual misconduct accusations and misogyny

When addressing the media or using social media, Trump has a past of demeaning and disparaging women. He insulted women’s appearances, made lewd remarks, and called them titles like “dog,” “crazed,” “crying lowlife,” “face of a pig,” or “horseface.”

A 2005 “hot mic” recording of Trump boasting about kissing and groping women without their permission emerged in October 2016, two days before the second presidential debate. Trump is heard saying, “When you’re a star, they let you do it, you can do anything… grab ’em by the pussy,” in the recording. Trump’s first campaign-related public explanation resulted from the incident’s extensive media coverage, which infuriated people on all sides of the political aisle.

At least 26 women have come forward and accused Trump of rape, unwanted kissing and groping, peering into women’s skirts, and approaching teenagers competing in beauty pageants while they were nude. In 2016, he refuted all charges, labeling them “false smears,” and asserted that he and the American people were the targets of a plot.

Provoking rage

According to research, Trump’s rhetoric contributed to a rise in hate offenses. He encouraged or praised physical attacks against reporters or demonstrators during his 2016 presidential campaign. Trump’s rhetoric was referenced by a number of defendants under investigation or facing charges for violent crimes and hate crimes, including those involved in the January 6, 2021 storming of the U.S. Capitol, in order to justify their innocence or request a lighter sentence. In at least 54 criminal cases from August 2015 to April 2020, according to a national investigation by ABC News in May 2020, Trump was directly linked to acts of violence or threats of violence committed by white males, mostly against people of color.

Prevailing culture

On television, in movies, and in comic books, Trump has been the target of parody, humor, and caricature. Since the 1980s, hundreds of hip hop tracks have mentioned Trump, most of them in favorable ways. After he started running for government in 2015, comments shifted to being primarily unfavorable and disparaging.

Donald Trump Net Worth

As of right now, the former president’s net worth is $2.5 billion, down from an estimated $3.2 billion last autumn. The principal cause? His once-hyped social media company has collapsed, wiping out $550 million from his net worth so far.

Our most current count, done in March 2023, puts Donald Trump’s total net worth at $2.5 billion, as reported by Forbes.

Donald Trump Family

The Donald Trump family is a well-known American family involved in real estate, culture, business, and politics. Donald Trump’s family also owns The Trump Organization and is the 45th president of the United States from 2017 to 2021. For the length of his presidency, Trump, his wife Melania, and son Barron served as the first family of the United States. Frederick Trump and Elizabeth Christ Trump, Trump’s paternal ancestors, were German immigrants to the US. Off Scotland’s west shore, on the Hebridean Isle of Lewis, Mary Anne MacLeod, the mother of Donald Trump, was born. Trump has three wives and five children, along with ten grandkids.

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